1.Evaluation of Analytical Data
– Statistical Methods
Definition of terms: mean, medium, mode, precision, standard deviation,
Standard deviation, accuracy, absolute error, relative error.
Types error in experimental data – determination (systematic), indeterminate
(random) and gross: sources of errors and their effects upon the analytical
Statistical evaluation of data – normal distribution, interval estimation,
methods of least squares.
2. Separation methods
a. Solvent extraction (liquid-liquid extraction): general principles,
relationship between percentage of extraction and distribution coefficient
and distribution ratio, multiple extraction, extraction of metal organic
complexes and ion association complexes, Craig tube.
b. Chromatographic techniques: Classification, basic principles, theory of
Ion exchange chromatography - ion exchange
process, synthesis and structure of ion-exchange resin, resolution,
retention parameters, selectivity, ion-exchange capacity and separation of
Paper and thin-layer chromatography- stationary
and mobile phases, various techniques of development – visualization and
evaluation of chromatograms, separation of inorganic and organic compounds
Liquid-gas chromatography- introduction,
methodology, instrumentation and industrial application.
HPLC: introduction, instrumentation and
Infra-red spectroscopy: Review of linear harmonic
oscillator,vibrational energies of diatomic molecules, force constant and
bond strengths, vibration of polyatomic molecules, selection rules, normal
modes of vibrations, overtones and combination bands, group frequencies,
instrumentation and interpretation of IR spectra.
UV absorption spectroscopy: Beer-Lambert law,
molar extinction coefficient, analysis of UV spectra, types of electronic
transitions, effect of conjugation, concept of chromophores and oxochromes,
bathochromic, hypsochromic, hyperchromic and hypochromic shifts, UV spectra
of conjugated enes and enones.
4. Thermal methods: Theory,
instrumentation andapplications of-
(a) Thermogravimetric method of analysis (TGA), (b)
Differential thermal methods of analysis (DTA), (c) Differential scanning
Paper2 Inorganic Chemistry
1. Shapes of Molecules:
VSEPR theory and hybridization, bent rule and energetics
of hybridization, role of d orbitals in σ
and π-bonding in non-metallic compounds.
2. Molecular Symmetry:
Symmetry elements and
operations, definition of mathematical group, similarity transformation and
classes: various point groups, symmetry criteria for polar and chiral
3. Molecular Orbital Theory (MOT)
LCAO method, σ, π and
δ molecular orbitals, treatment of homo-and hetero diatomic molecules, MOT
of delocalized π-bonding system-CO32-, NO3-.
4. Solid State:
Perfect and imperfect
crystals,defects in stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric compounds,
thermodynamics of Schottky and Frenkel defects, colour centers;
Molecular orbital theory of bonding in metals, intrinsic
and extrinsic semiconductors, doping semiconductors, p-n junctions;
conducting organic solids, conjugated systems, polyacetylens,
polyparaphenylenes and polypyrrols.
5. Inorganic Rings, Cages and Polymers:
structures of boranes, carboranes and metalloboranes; Preparation,
properties, structure and applications of silicones; Classification,
structure and applications of silicates and zeolites,
structures of isopoly and heteopoly molybdates and tungutates.
6. Reaction Mechanism of Transition Metal
Energy profile of a
reaction, reactivity of metal complexes, inert and labile complexes,
kinetics of octahedral substitution, substitution reactions in square-
planar complexes, the trans effect, mechanism of substitution reaction,
redox reactions, electron transfer reaction, mechanism of one electron
Disconnection approach: an introduction to synthons and
synthetic equivalent disconnection approach, functional group
interconversions, the importance of the order of events in organic
synthesis, one group C-X and two group C-X disconnections.
Protecting groups: principle of protection of alcohol,
amine, carbonyl and carboxyl groups.
One group C-C disconnections: alcohol and carbonyl
compounds, use of acetylenes and aliphatic nitro compounds in organic
Two group disconnections: Diels-Alder reaction, Michel
addition, Robinson annelation, control in carbonyl condensations.
Principle of heterocyclic synthesis involving
cyclization reaction and cycloaddition reactions.
Three membered and four membered heterocycles:
aziridines, oxiranes, thiranes, azetidenes, oxetances and thietanes.
Six membered heterocycles with one, two or
more hetero atoms.
Seven membered heterocycles: azepines,
diazepines, thiazepines, axocines and diazocines.
Meso-ionic heterocycles and benzofused
heterocycles, nucleophilic, electrophilic and cycloaddition reactions of
Organometallic Reagents in Organic Synthesis:
Principle, preparation and applications of Li, Mg, Hg,
Zn, Ni, Pd, Fe, Co and boron compounds in organic synthesis.
Rearrangements and Reactions
General mechanistic considerations: nature of migration,
migratory aptitude, memory effects.
Syntheses: Demjanov, benzil-benzylic acid, Favorskii and
Reactions: Neber, Shapiro and Barton.
Rearrangements: Photo-Fries, Stevens and Dienone-phenol.
Paper 4 Physical Chemistry
A. Chemical Dynamics:
Molecularity, order of reactions, reaction mechanism and
kinetics models for non-elementary reactions, temperature dependent term of
reaction rate and activation energy. Determination of kinetic expressions
from constant volume/constant pressure, batch reactor data integral and
differential methods of data analysis, autocatalytics, enzyme catalyzed and
surface catalyzed reactions, reversible and irreversible reactions, zero,
first, second, nth order reactions.
Design for multiple reactions: competing and series
reactions, complex reaction, yield, conversion and selectivity, choice of
reactors for single, simple and complex reaction. Temperature pressure
effects in a reactor design. heat of reaction and equilibrium constant from
thermodynamics, graphical design procedures, optimum temperature. Multiple
reactions: product distribution and temperature, temperature and vessel size
for maximum production.
Electrochemistry of solutions, electrocatalysis,
biochemistry, Nernst Plank equation, Hodges-Huxley equation,
electrocardiography, activity and activity coefficient, Deby-Huckel theory
for activity coefficient of electrolytic solutions, determination of
activity coefficient, ionic strength, Donnan-membrane equilibrium,
determination of molecular weight polyelectrolytes.
Thermodynamics of electrolytic cell, polarization and
over voltage, decomposition voltage;
Electrochemical energy systems: introduction,
fundamental of batteries, classification of batteries, sizes of batteries,
battery characteristics; primary batteries-dry cell, alkaline MnO2
batteries and other batteries, secondary batteries-lead acid, alkaline
storage batteries; battery charging-theory and practice, energy economics;
fuel cells-types and electrochemistry.
Instrumentation and Measurements
Density, viscosity and surface tension:
Pycknometers, Viscometers and Stalagmometers ((pure solvents and solutions),
Temperature: thermistors and platinum resistance thermometers: pH
of solutions: pH meter (analogue and digital); Conductance:
conductometers (analogue, digital); Molar refraction: refractometers;
Optical activity: polarimeter; Half wave
Notations used in an electric circuit, electronic
components and colour code, thermocouple, resistors, capacitors and
inductors, network of resistors, The venins theorem, current and voltage,
illustration of the use of the circuits in NQR spectroscopy, cyclic
voltammetry and power supply as filter circuit;
Semiconductors: diode and Zener diode, diodes as
rectifiers and detectors, P-N-P and N-P-N transistors, use of transistors as
amplifiers and superconductors.
a) Acid-base titrations:
(i) Estimation of weak and strong alkali's using KMnO4,
(ii) Redox titrations: KIO3, KBrO3,
including iodometric, Strength of H2O2, Cl2,
contents in bleaching powder.
(iii) Complexometric titrations: Estimation of Mg2+,
Ca2+ and Co2+, Ni2+ by
EDTA, ferro-ferri titrations.
b) Paper Chromatography: Separation of metal
Determine the percentage composition of the given
mixture of two liquids A and B (say acetone and water) by surface tension
Determine the percentage composition of a given
mixture of alcohol and water by viscosity measurements.
Determine the pK values of phosphoric acid by
titrating the acid against sodium hydroxide by using pH-meter and glass
Find out empirical formula of silver-ammonia
complex by potentiometric method.
Determine the isoinic point of glycine by pH
Simultaneous determination of Co (II) and Cr
(III) in a mixture of both by spectrophotometric method.
Determine the chemical oxygen demand (COD) in a
waste water sample.
(viii)To analyse the rock salt for chloride content by
Determine the content of iron in vitamin tablets
by colorimetric method.